Wherever we looked out into the universe, we see the most bizarre pattern similar to the foam – the heavy, mysterious invisible thread dark matter braiding around itself, weaving structure called giant Cosmic Web. Filament light light dance stars that trace these massive translucent yarn, throwing light on what otherwise can not be seen by human eyes. Shiny, star-shaped, massive galaxy can be observed piano like sparkling fireflies around the huge borders, black and almost – but not quite – empty void that interrupt this wonderful, twisted, invisible structure similar to the Internet. We live in a mysterious universe, which keeps its secrets well, largely because most of them are "missing" – avoiding the prying eyes of those who seek to explore what is hidden, unknown, and perhaps lost to us forever on the horizon our visibility. These very far on the & # 39; sites located in the unimaginably distant regions, and traveling light is not enough time to reach us since the birth of the Big Bang space and time nearly 14 billion years ago – a result of the expansion of the universe. At a meeting in June 2017 the American Astronomical Society (AAS) in Austin, Texas, astrophysicists have announced that they have uncovered one of the secrets of our universe – our Galaxy live in a dark place Emptiness.
When we consider our huge universe as a whole, our large spiral galaxy, the Milky Way and its "close" neighbors are in the distant suburbs. In the observational study, in 2013 the astronomer at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Dr. Amy Barger and her student Ryan Keenan demonstrated that our own Milky Way, in the context of large-scale structure of the universe is in an almost empty place. Emptiness. Here, in this respect, lonely place in the cosmos, there are far fewer galaxies, stars and planets than expected. Currently, Keenan is in Udacity Mountain In & # 39; w, California.
This new study, conducted by the State of Wisconsin-Madison University, which is also a & # 39 is a student of Dr. Barger, reinforces earlier studies that suggest that we are in a dark and almost– But not completely – empty voids of the great cosmic web. New research also helps to coordinate some obvious differences between the various measurements Hubble constant. The Hubble constant This unit, which cosmologist used to describe the rate of expansion of the universe.
"No matter what technique you use, you should get the same value for the expansion rate of the universe today. Fortunately, living in void helps to solve this tension, "he explained Ben Hosheyt June 6, 2017 at a meeting of the AAS. Mr. Hosheyt with & # 39 is a student at the University of Wisconsin, who found that our galaxy the Milky Way is much higher than the average void.
A new study from the & # 39 is part of a broader effort to better understand the large-scale structure of the universe. Huge, massive structure, similar to the Internet, looked like Swiss cheese – or, conversely, of the natural sponge or even a familiar honeycomb. It also recalls the neural network of the human brain. massive thread cosmic web they are marked superklasterami brilliant galaxies and clusters of galaxies that, in turn, consist of a fiery glittering stars that light up the gas, dust, planets, moons and other small about & # 39 objects. Two "missing" components Kosmasu–dark matter and dark energy–daley can not be observed directly.
Currently, the universe consists of 4.9 percent "ordinary" atomic (Baryonavae) substance, 26.8 per cent dark matter, and 84.5 per cent dark energy. Two "missing" components of the total mass of the universe, dark matter and dark energy, together they account for about 95.1 percent of the total mass of the universe. Of course, the so-called "normal" nuclear matter This pathetic valadarenne three litter the universe. However, nuclear matter in fact, not a "normal" at all – this is an unusual form of matter is the world with which people are familiar, and includes all the atomic elements listed in the familiar Periodic Table. The only atomic elements manufactured in fireball Big Bang – hydrogen, helium, traces of lithium and beryllium. all heavier atomic elements were prepared in the process nuclear fusion stars or – in the case of the heaviest atomic elements – in the post-fire supernova that indicated grand finale their starry existence. shady transaction is mysterious material, which is believed to consist of exotic nonatomic particles that do not interact with light or any other form of electromagnetic radiation. However, dark matter really interact with "normal" nuclear matter by the force of gravity, which is why she gives herself, though invisible. gravitational effects dark matter on the visible nuclear material manifestation of his ghostly presence. dark energy even more mysterious than dark matter. Perhaps the cosmos property, a substance that causes the universe to accelerate its expansion.
However, there is an alternative proposal to the existence of dark energy.This proposal suggests that our planet is adjacent to a center Emptiness. Although the results seem to indicate that void Models bad match observations, nonetheless, many scientists believe that more research is needed to determine whether it is necessary void models, dark energyor something else entirely accurately explain how and why the universe is expanding at a rate of.
lost in void
enormous cosmic web it accounts for more than 50 percent of the & # 39; the volume of the entire universe and its amazing structure shows a huge, massive dark matter strands that surround the wide, black, and almost null Nether. Our Space filled huge collections of galaxies located in the cluster and nodes which are interconnected long strings within dark matter mustache Cosmic Web. This huge structure is extremely well organized, and it shows some very tense intersection of galaxies that are buzzing on the black, empty spaces. A huge, cavernous voids for many years it has been the target of astronomers in their efforts to understand the relatively small number of galactic components that swarm around them. Hard to say, expanses of shiny and dark matter filaments light sparkling flame trillion stars, is surrounded by a black and almost empty cavernous void or if voids Instead, surround these massive star filamentous antennae mysterious, ghostly, transparent and twisted things. Indeed, the two components cosmic web so intertwined with that some cosmologist believe that all large-scale structure of the Universe is best described as just one large filament lit flaming stars and glowing gases, and only one huge void tied together in a twisted and incredibly huge canvas.
Recent studies show that our universe has evolved as they grow older and halazhennya. He was born 13.8 billion years ago in a break the most of the Cosmos, in an exponential proliferation of the inflation of the Big Bang. He started as an unimaginably small patch, and then – in the shortest fraction of a second – has expanded exponentially to reach macroscopic size. The large-scale structure of the universe, as is the case in cosmic webThere may have been born without actual physical differences which exist between the areas greater than the average density, wherein fixtures galactic structures are formed within the dark matter and fringing field with a lower average density, which turned into a nearly empty Nether. If the large-scale structure of the universe as we see it today, really & # 39 is the result of random fluctuations of the quantum level in the Children of the Universe, this observation – this is what offers the most direct cosmological models. In physics, a quantum the minimum quantity of any natural person involved in the interaction.
As a result, some of the domains of the universe get so much more matter density than others, simply because of the accident. As the saying goes, "the rich get richer and the poor – poorer." Because of random quantum fluctuations in the newborn cosmos distribution of wealth in our universe it was completely random.
Our Milky Way: the lost and lonely in this void
The void containing our galaxy, dubbed KBC canceled for Keenan, Barger and Dr. Covey Lennaksa with the University of Hawaii, is believed to be at least seven times more than the average void, With a large radius of about 1 billion light years. The KBC canceled now with the & # 39 is the biggest void known to astronomers. According to Dr. Barger, a new study by Ben Hosheyta shows that the first assessment of Ryan Taff KBC problemwhich suggests that it has a spherical shape, sports shell thickness increase consisting of galaxies, stars, and other forms of matter–It does not exclude other observational constraints.
"It is often very difficult to find a consistent solution between the different observations. The fact that Ben has shown is that the section density, which measured Keenan corresponds to cosmological observations. Man always wants to find a sequence, or there where any problems that need to be resolved" , said Dr. Barger at the UN in June 2017. Dr. Barger – observational cosmologist, who is an officer's reunion at the Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawaii.
For scientists who measure the accelerated expansion of the universe, the brilliant light that penetrates from space to space type Ia supernova standard candle choice. type Ia supernovae all explode with the same amount of energy, and thus they can provide astronomers measurement method Hubble constant. discovery dark energy In 1998, the remote itself was made by astronomers using Type Ia supernovae how standard candles.
As an alternative method the cosmic microwave background (CMB) it is also a way for astronomers to investigate the primordial universe. The CMB there relict light of the Big Bang itself.
"Photons with CMB encode baby picture of the early universe. They show us that at this stage, the universe was surprisingly smooth. It was dense hot soup photons, electrons, and protons, which show only small temperature differences across the sky. But in fact, these tiny temperature differences lead to the conclusion Hubble constant and "local" resolution, obtained by observing light from a relatively nearby supernova, "explained Ben Hosheyt at the June meeting of the United Nations.
Hasheyt went on to explain that in this way you can make a direct comparison between the "space" of determination Hubble constant and "local" definition, obtained on the basis of observations of light at a relatively nearby supernova.
Dr. Barger noted that the new study Hoscheit, shows that there is no modern observational obstacles to the conclusion that the Milky Way is in very high places Emptiness. She added that in the presence of a bonus void You can also resolve some differences between the methods are used to determine the rate of expansion of the universe.